Akita Tetsuo: Nihon Hanamachi Shi (History of Geisha Communities in Japan)

   秋田鉄男:日本花街史( 雄山閣出版)1990


Asahara Sumi: O-zashiki Asobi (Having Fun at a Geisha Party)

   浅原須美:お座敷遊び (光文社新書) (新書)2003


Asahara Sumi: Tokyo Rokkagai (The Six Geisha Communities of Tokyo)

   浅原須美: 東京六花街 (ダイヤモンド社)2007


Peabody Essex Museum: Geisha: Beyond the Painted Smile. 2004


Iwasaki Mineko: Geiko Mineko no Hana Ikusa (in English as “Geisha - A Life”)

   岩崎峰子:芸妓峰子の花いくさ (講談社プラスアルファ文庫)2001


Iwashita Hisafumi: Geisharon (Discourse on Geisha)

   岩下尚史: 芸者論 (雄山閣) 2006


Kamishichiken Ichimame: Maiko no Osahô (The Etiquette of Being a Maiko)

   上七軒市豆:舞妓のお作法(大和書房)2007


Komomo: A Geisha's Journey, My Life as a Kyoto Apprentice. Photographs by Naoki Ogino.

    Kodansha International, 2008


Masuda Sayo, trans. Gaye Rowley: Autobiography of a Geisha. Columbia University Press. 2003


Mizobuchi Hiroshi: Hannari to—Kyô Maiko no Shiki (Bright and Elegant, Kyoto’s Maiko through    the Seasons)

   溝縁ひろし:はんなりと—京舞妓の四季(京都新聞出版センター)2004


Nagai Kafu trans. Stephen Snyder: Rivalry; a Geisha’s Tale (Japanese Studies Series).

   Columbia University Press. 2007


Nishio Kumiko: Kyoto Hanamachi no Eigyôgaku (The Business of the Kyoto Geisha Communities)

   西尾久美子:京都花街の営業学(東洋経済新報社)2007


Sohara Kyôko: Kyoto Maiko to Geiko no Okuzashiki (The Innermost Lives of Kyoto’s Maiko and Geiko)

   祖原恭子:京都 舞妓と芸妓の奥座敷 (文春新書) 2001


Sohara Kyôko: Kyoto Hanamachi Motenashi no Gijutsu (The Skill and Arts of the Kyoto Geisha Communities)

   祖原恭子: 京都花街 もてなしの技術 (小学館)2005


Sugita Hiroaki: Kyô no Hanamachi Gion (Kyoto’s Geisha Community Gion)

   杉田博明:京の花街 祇園 (浅交社) 2003

selected bibliography of recent books on geisha